EMF Studies and Articles


Evidence of Risk: Studies and Articles

The studies and articles in this compilation are the result of years of self guided investigation, conducted by Safe Living Technologies, on the topic of health impacts related to exposure to electromagnetic radiation.



5G: Great risk for EU, U.S. and International Health!
Martin L. Pall, PhDMay 17,2018
Source: 5G: Great risk for EU, U.S. and International Health! Compelling Evidence for Eight Distinct Types of Great Harm Caused by Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Exposures and the Mechanism that Causes Them,

Biological Health Effects

Acute exposure to a 60 Hz magnetic field increases DNA strand breaks in rat brain cells
Lai, H. and Singh, N.P.1997
Source: Bioelectromagnetics, 18 (2) (1997): 156-165.

BioInitiative Report 2012
Blackman, Carl. F. Blank, Martin et al2012
Source: BioInitiative 2012,

Cell death induced by GSM 900-MHz and DCS 1800-MHz mobile telephony radiation
Panagopoulos, Dimitris J. Chavdoula, Evangelia D. Nezis, Ioannis P. and Margaritis, Lukas H. 2006
Source: Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 626 (1-2) (2006): 69-78

Low-level exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields: health effects and research needs
Repacholi, M. 1998
Source: Bioelectromagnetics, (1) (1998): 1-19

Physics and biology of mobile telephony
Hyland, G.J. 2000
Source: The Lancet, 356 (9244) (2000): 1833-1836

Position on the Health Effects from Radio Frequency/Microwave (RF/MW) Radiation in Fire Department Facilities from Base Stations for Antennas and Towers for the Conduction of Cell Phone Transmissions IAFF2005
Source: International Association of Fire Fighters, Division of Occupational Health, Safety and Medicine

Significant Decrease of Clinical Symptoms After Mobile Phone Base Station Removal - An Intervention Study
Shinjyo, T. & Shinjyo, A.(2014)
Source: Signifikanter Rückgang klinischer Symptome nach Senderabbau – eine Interventionsstudie., Umwelt-Medizin-Gesellschaft, 27(4), S. 294-301

Suppression of T-lymphocyte cytotoxicity following exposure to sinusoidally amplitude-modified fields
Lyle, D.B. Schechter, P. Dr. Ross Adey, W. Lundak, R.L.1983
Source: Bioelectromagnetics, 4 (1983): 281-292

Cell Phone Towers

Health Effects of Mobile Phone Transmitter Masts and the Planning Application by Orange for a mast in St. Michael's Church, Aberystwyth
Chris Busby and Roger CoghillSept 2006
Source: Green Audit, Aberystwyth

Possible effects of electromagnetic fields from phone masts on a population of white stork
Balmori, AOct. 2005
Source: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, Volume: 24; Pages: 109-119

The Influence of Being Physically Near to a Cell Phone Transmission Mast on the Incidence of Cancer
Eger, H. et al2004
Source: Einfluss der räumlichen Nähe von Mobilfunksendeanlagen auf die Krebsinzidenz, 17,4 2004

Children and Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure

A case-control study of childhood leukemia in southern Ontario Canada and exposure to magnetic fields in residences
Green, L.M. Miller, A.B. Villeneuve, P.J. Agnew, D.A. Greenberg, M.L. Li, J. Donnelly, K.E. 1999
Source: Int J Cancer, 1999 Jul 19;82(2):161-70.

Do magnetic fields cause increased risk of childhood leukaemia via melatonin disruption?
Henshaw, Denis L; Reiter, Russel J2005
Source: Bioelectromagnetics Supplement 7, Pages S86-S97

Electromagnetic absorption in the human head and neck for mobile telephones at 835 and 1900 MHz
Gandhi, O.P. Lazzi, G. and Furse, C.M.1996
Source: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Volume: 44; Pages: 1884-1897

Exposure to magnetic fields and survival after diagnosis of childhood leukemia: a German cohort study
Svendsen, A.L. Weihkopf, T. Kaatsch, P. Schuz, J. 2007
Source: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 16(6) 1167-1171

Magnetic field exposure and long-term survival among children with leukemia
Foliart, D.E. Pollock, B.H. Mezei, G. Iriye, R. Silva, J.M. Epi, K.L. Kheifets, L. Lind, M.P. Kavet, R. 2006
Source: British Journal of Cancer, 94 161-164

Motor and psychological functions of school children living in the area of the Skrunda radio location station in Latvia
Kolodynski, A. and Kolodynska, V.V. 1996
Source: Science of the Total Environment, 180 (1) (1996): 87-93

Electrosensitivity and Membrane Sensitivity Syndrome

Electromagnetic field sensitivity
Rea, W. Pan, Y. Yenyves, E. Sujisawa, I. Suyama, H. Samadi, N. and Ross, G. 1991
Source: Journal of Bioelectricity, 10 (1991): 241-256

Extremely Low Frequency Radiation (ELF)

A population-based prospective cohort study of personal exposure to magnetic fields during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage
Li, D.K. Odouli, R. Wi, S. Janevic, T. Golditch, I. Bracken, T.D. Senior, R. Rankin, R. and Iriye, R.2002
Source: Epidemiology, 13 (1) (2002): 9-20

Biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic energy: A critical review of the reports by the US National Research Council and the US National ICNIRP
Havas, M.2000
Source: International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz)., Health Phys 74 (4):494-522

Chronic or intractable medical problems associated with prolonged exposure to unsuspected harmful environmental electric, magnetic or electro -magnetic fields radiating in the bedroom or workplace and their exacerbation by intake of harmful light and
Omura,Y. Losco, M. Omura, A.K. Yamamoto, S. Ishikawa, H. Takeshige, C. Shimotsuura, Y. and Muteki, T. 1991
Source: Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research, 16 (3-4) (1991): 143-77

Cutaneous mast cells are altered in normal healthy volunteers sitting in front of ordinary TVs/PCs--results from open-field provocation experiments.
Johansson, O. Gangi, S. Liang, Y. Yoshimura, K. Jing,C. and Liu, P.Y.2001
Source: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology, 2001 Nov, 28(10):513-519

Exposure to electromagnetic fields and suicide among electric utility workers: A nested case-control study
Van Wijngaarden, E.V. Savitz, D.A. Kleckner, R.C. Cai, J. Loomis, D.2000
Source: The Western Journal of Medicine, 173(2): 94-100

Extra low frequency electric and magnetic fields in the bedplace of children diagnosed with leukemia: a case control study
R.W Coghill; J Steward; A Phillips1996
Source: European Journal of Cancer Prevention, 5 (3) (153-158)

Health Effects of EMF's
Henshaw, Denis L2009
Source: H.H Wills Physics Laboratory,

Leukemia following occupational exposure to 60Hz electric and magnetic fields among Ontario electric utility workers
Miller, Anthony. To, Teresa. Agnew, David. A. Wall, Claus. Green, Lois M. 1996
Source: American Journal of Epidemiology, 144 (2) (1996) 150-160

Low-Frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields influence EEG of man
Von Klitzing, L1995
Source: Physica Medica, 11 (2) (1995): 77-80

Magnetic field exposure from electric appliances and childhood cancer
Savitz, D.A. John, E.M. and Kleckner, R.C.1990
Source: American Journal of Epidemiology, 131 (5) (1990): 763-773

Residential exposure to electric power transmission lines and risk of lymphoproliferative and myeloproliferative disorders: a case-control study
Lowenthal, R.M. Tuck, D.M. and Bray, I.C.2007
Source: Internal Medicine Journal, 37 (9) (2007): 614-619

Risk Evaluation of Potential Environmental Hazards from Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure Using Sensitive in vitro Methods
Adlkofer, Franz2006
Source: Bioelectromagnetics Current Concepts, 4; pp 331-354

Increased Risk of Cancer

Acute exposure to a 60 Hz magnetic field increases DNA strand breaks in rat brain cells
Lai, H. and Singh, N.P. 1997
Source: Bioelectromagnetics, (2) (1997): 156-165.

Cancer incidence and mortality and proximity to TV towers
Hocking, B. Gordon, I.R. Grain, H.L. and Hatfield, G.E. 1996
Source: Medical Journal of Australia, 165 (11-12) (1996): 601-605

Cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for brain tumours
Hardell, L. Hallquist, A. Mild, K.H. Carlberg, M. Påhlson, A. and Lilja, A.2002
Source: European Journal of Cancer Prevention, 11 (4) (2002): 377-386

Cellular phone use and risk of benign and malignant parotid gland tumors - a nationwide case-control study
Sadetzki, S. Chetrit, A. Jarus-Hakak, A. Cardis, E. Deutch, Y. Duvdevani, S. Zultan, A. Novikov, I. Freedman, L.and Wolf, M.2008
Source: American Journal of Epidemiology, 167 (4) (2008): 457-467.

International Workshop on Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields
Marinelli, Fiorenzo. 2002
Source: NewScientist 24 October 2002

Long-term use of cellular phones and brain tumours: increased risk associated with use for =10 years
Hardell, Lennart. Carlberg, Micheal. Söderqvist, Fredrik. Mild, Kjell, Hansson and Morgan, L. Lloyd 2007
Source: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 64 (9) (2007): 626-632

Lymphomas in Eµ-Pim 1 transgenic mice exposed to pulsed 900 MHz electromagnetic fields
Repacholi, M.H. Baster, A. Gebski, V. Noonan, D. Finnie, J. and Harris, A.W.1997
Source: Radiation Research, 147(5):631-40.

Magnetic field exposure from electric appliances and childhood cancer
Savitz, D.A. John, E.M. and Kleckner, R.C.1990
Source: American Journal of Epidemiology, 131 (5) (1990): 763-773

Mobile phones, heat shock proteins, and cancer
French, P.W. Penny, R. Laurence, J.A. and McKenzie, D.R. 2001
Source: Differentiation, 67 (4-5) (2001): 93-97

Mobile telephones and cancer - a review of epidemiological evidence
Kundi, M. Mild, K. Hardell, L. and Mattsson, M.O.2004
Source: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B: Critical Reviews, 7 (5) (2004): 351

Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: Molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects
Leszczynski, D. Joenväärä, S. Reivinen, J. Kuokka, R.2002
Source: Differentiation, 70 (2-3) (2002): 120-129.

Pooled analysis of two case-control studies on use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for malignant brain tumours diagnosed in 1997-2003
Hardell, L. Carlberg, M. and Mild, K. 2006
Source: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 79 (8) (2006): 630-639

Increased Vulnerability to Infectious Disease

Effect on the immune system of mice exposed chronically to 50 Hz amplitude-modulated 2.45 GHz microwaves
Elekes, E. Thuróczy, G and Szabó, L.D. 1996
Source: Bioelectromagnetics, 17 (3) (1996): 246-248

Leaks in the Blood Brain Barrier

Blood-brain barrier permeability in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields used in wireless communication
Persson, B.R.R. Salford, L.G. and Brun, A. 1997
Source: Wireless Networks, 3 (1997): 455-461

Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: Molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects
Leszczynski, D. Joenväärä, S. Reivinen, J. Kuokka, R. 2002
Source: Differentiation, 70 (2-3) (2002): 120-129


Genotoxicity of radiofrequency signals: Investigation of DNA damage and micronuclei induction in cultured human blood cells
Tice, R.R. Hook, G.G. Donner, M. McRee, D.I. and Guy, A.W. 2002
Source: Bioelectromagnetics, 23 (2) (2002): 113-126

Radio Frequency Waves (RF)

Cerebral Symptoms from Mobile Telephones
Cox, R.A.2000
Source: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57 (2000): 431

Consultations in primary care for symptoms attributed to electromagnetic fields – a survey among general practitioners
Huss, Anke and Roosli, Martin 2006
Source: BMC Public Health, 2006, 6:267

Effect of cell phone usage on semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic: an observational study
Agarwal, A. Deepinder, F. Sharma, R.K. Ranga, G. and Li, J.2008
Source: Fertility and Sterility, 89 (1) (2008): 124-128

Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation from a Cellular Phone on Human Sperm Motility
Erogul, Osman. Oztas, Emin. Yildirim, Ibrahim. Kir, Tayfun. Aydur, Emin. Komesli, Gokhan. Irkilata, Hasan, Cem. Irmak, Mehmet, Kemal. and Peker, Ahmet, Fuat. 2006
Source: Archives of Medical Research, 37 (7) (2006): 840-843

Effects of microwave radiation may not be limited to heating
Butcher, J2000
Source: The Lancet, 355 (9217) (2000): 1793

Interference with Cardiac Pacemakers by Cellular Telephones
Tice, R.R. Hook, G.G. Donner, M. McRee, D.I. and Guy, A.W.1997
Source: New England Journal of Medicine, 336 (21) (1997): 1473-1479

Localized effects of microwave radiation on the intact eye lens in culture conditions
Dovrat, R. Berenson, R. Bormusov, A. Lahav, T. Lustman, N. Sharon, and L. Schächter2005
Source: Bioelectromagnetics, 26 (5) (2005): 398-405

Mechanism of short-term ERK activation by electromagnetic fields at mobile phone frequencies
Friedman, J. Kraus, S. Hauptman, Y. Schiff, Y. and Seger, R.2007
Source: Biochemistry Journal, 405 (3) (2007): 559-568

Microwave radiation can alter protein conformation without bulk heating
de Pomerai,D. I. Smith, B. Dawe, A. North, K. Smith, T. Archer, D. B. Duce, I. R. Jones, D and Candido, E.P.2003
Source: FEBS Letters, 2003 May 22; 543 (1-3): 93-97

Mobile phone emissions and human brain excitability
Ferreri, Florinda. Curcio, Giuseppe. Pasqualetti, Patrizio. De Gennaro, Luigi. Fini, Rita and Paolo Rossini2006
Source: Annals of Neurology, 60 (2) (2006): 188-196

Mobile phone use and subjective symptoms: Comparison of symptoms experienced by users of analogue and digital mobile phones
Sandström, M. Wilen, J. Oftedal, G.and Mild, K. 2001
Source: Occupational Medicine (London), 51 (1) (2001): 25-35

Mobile Phones and the Illusory Pursuit of Safety
Dendy, P.P.2000
Source: The Lancet, 356 (9244) (2000): 1782 -1783

Mobile phones modulate response patterns of human brain activity
Eulitz, C. Ullsperger, P. Freude, G. and Elbert, T. 1998
Source: Neuroreport, 9 (14) (1998): 3229-3232

Resting Blood Pressure Increase During Exposure to a Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Field
Braune, S. Wrocklage, C. Raczek, J. Gailus, T. and Lücking, C.H. 1998
Source: The Lancet, 351 (9119) (1998): 1857-1858

RF Radiation-induced changes in the prenatal development of mice
Magras, I.N. and Zenos, T.D. 1997
Source: Bioelectromagnetics, 18 (6) (1997): 455-461

Source of Funding and Results of Studies of Health Effects of Mobile Phone Use: Systematic Review of Experimental Studies.
Huss, A. Egger, M. Hug, K. Huwiler-Muntener, K. Roosli, M.2007
Source: Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 115 (1) January 2007

Symptoms Experienced in Connection with Mobile Phone Use
Oftedal, G. Wilén, J. Sandström, M. and Mild, K.H2000
Source: Occupational Medicine, 50 (2000): 237-245

The effects of 884 MHz GSM wireless communication signals on headache and other symptoms: An experimental provocation study
Hillert, L. Akerstedt, T. Lowden, A. Wiholm, C. Kuster, N. Ebert, S. Boutry, C. Moffat, S.D. Berg, M. and Arnetz, B.B. 2008
Source: Bioelectromagnetics, 29 (3) (2008): 185-196

The Interphone study: design epidemiological methods, and description of the study population
Cardis, Elisabeth. Richardson, Lesley. Deltour, Isabelle. et al2007
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology, Springer Netherlands, Volume 22 (9) September 2007

Sleep Disturbances

Effects of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields on human sleep
Mann, K. and Röschke, J.1996
Source: Neuropsychobiology, 33 (1) (1996): 41-47

Exposure to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field during waking affects human sleep EEG
Huber, R. Graf, T. Cote, K.A. Wittmann, L. Gallmann, E. Matter, D. Schuderer, J. Kuster, N. Borbély, A.A. and Achermann, P.2000
Source: Neuroreport, 11 (15) (2000): 3321-3325